A combinatorial Hopf algebra for the boson normal ordering problem
Abstract
In the aim to understand the generalization of Stirling numbers occurring in the bosonic normal ordering problem, several combinatorial models have been proposed. In particular, Blasiak \emph{et al.} defined combinatorial objects allowing to interpret the number of $S_{\bf{r,s}}(k)$ appearing in the identity $(a^†)^{r_n}a^{s_n}\cdots(a^†)^{r_1}a^{s_1}=(a^†)^\alpha\displaystyle\sum S_{\bf{r,s}}(k)(a^†)^k a^k$, where $\alpha$ is assumed to be nonnegative. These objects are used to define a combinatorial Hopf algebra which specializes to the enveloping algebra of the Heisenberg Lie algebra. Here, we propose a new variant of this construction which admits a realization with variables. This means that we construct our algebra from a free algebra $\mathbb{C}\langle A \rangle$ using quotient and shifted product. The combinatorial objects (Bdiagrams) are slightly different from those proposed by Blasiak \emph{et al.}, but give also a combinatorial interpretation of the generalized Stirling numbers together with a combinatorial Hopf algebra related to Heisenberg Lie algebra. The main difference comes from the fact that the Bdiagrams have the same number of inputs and outputs. After studying the combinatorics and the enumeration of Bdiagrams, we propose two constructions of algebras called Fusion algebra $\mathcal{F}$, defined using formal variable and another algebra $\mathcal{B}$ constructed directly from the Bdiagrams. We show the connection between these two algebras and that $\mathcal{B}$ can be endowed with a Hopf structure. We recognize two already known combinatorial Hopf subalgebras of $\mathcal{B}$ : $\mathrm{WSym}$ the algebra of word symmetric functions indexed by set partitions and $\mathrm{BWSym}$ the algebra of biword symmetric functions indexed by set partitions into lists.
 Publication:

arXiv eprints
 Pub Date:
 December 2015
 arXiv:
 arXiv:1512.05937
 Bibcode:
 2015arXiv151205937E
 Keywords:

 Mathematics  Combinatorics;
 Mathematical Physics;
 05A18;
 11B73;
 16W30
 EPrint:
 27 pages, 17 figures