Low Rank Approximation of Binary Matrices: Column Subset Selection and Generalizations
Abstract
Low rank matrix approximation is an important tool in machine learning. Given a data matrix, low rank approximation helps to find factors, patterns and provides concise representations for the data. Research on low rank approximation usually focus on real matrices. However, in many applications data are binary (categorical) rather than continuous. This leads to the problem of low rank approximation of binary matrix. Here we are given a $d \times n$ binary matrix $A$ and a small integer $k$. The goal is to find two binary matrices $U$ and $V$ of sizes $d \times k$ and $k \times n$ respectively, so that the Frobenius norm of $A  U V$ is minimized. There are two models of this problem, depending on the definition of the dot product of binary vectors: The $\mathrm{GF}(2)$ model and the Boolean semiring model. Unlike low rank approximation of real matrix which can be efficiently solved by Singular Value Decomposition, approximation of binary matrix is $NP$hard even for $k=1$. In this paper, we consider the problem of Column Subset Selection (CSS), in which one low rank matrix must be formed by $k$ columns of the data matrix. We characterize the approximation ratio of CSS for binary matrices. For $GF(2)$ model, we show the approximation ratio of CSS is bounded by $\frac{k}{2}+1+\frac{k}{2(2^k1)}$ and this bound is asymptotically tight. For Boolean model, it turns out that CSS is no longer sufficient to obtain a bound. We then develop a Generalized CSS (GCSS) procedure in which the columns of one low rank matrix are generated from Boolean formulas operating bitwise on columns of the data matrix. We show the approximation ratio of GCSS is bounded by $2^{k1}+1$, and the exponential dependency on $k$ is inherent.
 Publication:

arXiv eprints
 Pub Date:
 November 2015
 arXiv:
 arXiv:1511.01699
 Bibcode:
 2015arXiv151101699D
 Keywords:

 Computer Science  Computational Complexity;
 Computer Science  Data Structures and Algorithms
 EPrint:
 38 pages