We provide an overview of the recent theoretical and experimental advances in the study of second sound in ultracold atomic gases. Starting from the Landau two fluid hydrodynamic equations we develop the theory of first and second sound in various configurations characterized by different geometries and quantum statistics. These include the weakly interacting 3D Bose gas, the strongly interacting Fermi gas at unitarity in the presence of highly elongated traps and the dilute 2D Bose gas, characterized by the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition. An explicit comparison with the propagation of second sound in liquid Helium is carried out to elucidate the main analogies and differences. We also make an explicit comparison with the available experimental data and point out the crucial role played by the superfluid density in determining the temperature dependence of the second sound speed.