Branch cuts of Stokes wave on deep water. Part II: Structure and location of branch points in infinite set of sheets of Riemann surface
Abstract
Stokes wave is a finite amplitude periodic gravity wave propagating with constant velocity in inviscid fluid. Complex analytical structure of Stokes wave is analyzed using a conformal mapping of a free fluid surface of Stokes wave into the real line with fluid domain mapped into the lower complex halfplane. There is one square root branch point per spatial period of Stokes located in the upper complex halfplane at the distance $v_c$ from the real axis. The increase of Stokes wave height results in approaching $v_c$ to zero with the limiting Stokes wave formation at $v_c=0.$ The limiting Stokes wave has $2/3$ power law singularity forming $2\pi/3$ radians angle on the crest which is qualitatively different from the square root singularity valid for arbitrary small but nonzero $v_c$ making the limit of zero $v_c$ highly nontrivial. That limit is addressed by crossing a branch cut of a square root into the second and subsequently higher sheets of Riemann surface to find coupled square root singularities at the distances $\pm v_c$ from the real axis at each sheet. The number of sheets is infinite and the analytical continuation of Stokes wave into all these sheets is found together with the series expansion in halfinteger powers at singular points within each sheet. It is conjectured that nonlimiting Stokes wave at the leading order consists of the infinite number of nested square root singularities which also implies the existence in the third and higher sheets of the additional square root singularities away from the real and imaginary axes. These nested square roots form $2/3$ power law singularity of the limiting Stokes wave as $v_c$ vanishes.
 Publication:

arXiv eprints
 Pub Date:
 September 2015
 arXiv:
 arXiv:1509.03393
 Bibcode:
 2015arXiv150903393L
 Keywords:

 Nonlinear Sciences  Pattern Formation and Solitons
 EPrint:
 37 pages, 5 figures