Ultrahigh Enhancement of Electromagnetic Fields by Exciting Localized with Extended Surface Plasmons
Excitation of localized surface plasmons (LSPs) of metal nanoparticles (NPs) residing on a flat metal film has attracted great attentions recently due to the enhanced electromagnetic (EM) fields found to be higher than the case of NPs on a dielectric substrate. In the present work, it is shown that even much higher enhancement of EM fields is obtained by exciting the LSPs through extended surface plasmons (ESPs) generated at the metallic film surface using the Kretschmann-Raether configuration. We show that the largest EM field enhancement and the highest surface-enhanced fluorescence intensity are obtained when the incidence angle is the ESP resonance angle of the underlying metal film. The finite-difference time-domain simulations indicate that excitation of LSPs using ESPs can generate 1-3 orders higher EM field intensity than direct excitation of the LSPs using incidence from free space. The ultrahigh enhancement is attributed to the strong confinement of the ESP waves in the vertical direction. The drastically intensified EM fields are significant for highly-sensitive refractive index sensing, surface-enhanced spectroscopies, and enhancing the efficiency of optoelectronic devices.