We are posting this 10-year-old white paper to support an upcoming survey description paper for the SDSS-III Apache Point Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) led by PI Dr. Steven Majewski. The white paper presented here was a contribution to a 2005 "futures" planning process for the Astrophysical Research Consortium led by Dr. Donald York that examined both prospects for extending the work of SDSS and SDSS-II as well as enhancing the capabilities of the Apache Point 3.5-meter telescope and the overall scientific reach of the Consortium. This particular white paper describes the potential for using the Sloan 2.5-meter telescope and its fiber optic infrastructure to conduct a galactic plane chemical abundance survey in the low-extinction 1.6um H-band. The survey would target >1000 red giant stars per night selected from the Two Micron All Sky Survey using a >200 fiber near-infrared spectrograph operating at spectral resolution of R~24,000 with a magnitude limit of H~12 - very close to the final APOGEE implementation. A number of features suggested in the white paper did not survive to the actual survey including an R~3000 low-resolution spectral mode emphasizing kinematics to a fainter magnitude limit of K~14, a tunable high-resolution grating (retired by using three HAWAII-2RG arrays to cover most of the H-band all at once), a refrigerated optical train (the actual APOGEE is LN2 cooled), and the use of InGaAs arrays (HgCdTe remained the most mature technology at the time of construction). The white paper also suggests making the APOGEE instrument accessible to the 3.5-meter telescope at Apache Point, a project now underway.