In resolving instances of a computational problem, if multiple instances of interest share a feature in common, it may be fruitful to compile this feature into a format that allows for more efficient resolution, even if the compilation is relatively expensive. In this article, we introduce a formal framework for classifying problems according to their compilability. The basic object in our framework is that of a parameterized problem, which here is a language along with a parameterization---a map which provides, for each instance, a so-called parameter on which compilation may be performed. Our framework is positioned within the paradigm of parameterized complexity, and our notions are relatable to established concepts in the theory of parameterized complexity. Indeed, we view our framework as playing a unifying role, integrating together parameterized complexity and compilability theory.