The theory and design of superbackscattering nanoparticle dimers are presented. We analytically derive the optimal configurations and the upper bound of their backscattering cross-sections. In particular, it is demonstrated that electrically small nanoparticle dimers can enhance the backscattering by a factor of 6.25 with respect to single dipolar particles. We demonstrate that optimal designs approaching this theoretical limit can be found by using a simple circuit model. The study of practical implementations based on plasmonic and high-permittivity particles has been also addressed. Moreover, the numerical examples reveal that the dimers can attain close to a fourfold enhancement of the single nanoparticle response even in the presence of high losses.