This article discusses the role of materials science in the growth and processing of silicon that made modern microelectronics possible. The influence of defects on the electronic properties of silicon is explored, followed by the production of electronic-grade silicon and its conversion into macroscopically dislocation-free doped silicon crystals. The intricacies of dopant distributions in as-grown crystals are also discussed. Oxidation, ion implantation, and metallization are essential elements of device processing, and their salient features are emphasized. The electromigration behavior of interconnects and attempts to prevent it are also introduced.