Emergent physics on Mach's principle and the rotating vacuum
Abstract
Mach's principle applied to rotation can be correct if one takes into account the rotation of the quantum vacuum together with the Universe. Whether one can detect the rotation of the vacuum or not depends on its properties. If the vacuum is fully relativistic at all scales, Mach's principle should work and one cannot distinguish the rotation: in the rotating Universe + vacuum, the corotating bucket will have a flat surface (not concave). However, if there are "quantum gravity" effects, which violate Lorentz invariance at high energy, then the rotation will become observable. This is demonstrated by analogy in condensedmatter systems, which consist of two subsystems: superfluid background (analog of vacuum) and "relativistic" excitations (analog of matter). For the lowenergy (longwavelength) observer the rotation of the vacuum is not observable. In the rotating frame, the "relativistic" quasiparticles feel the background as a Minkowski vacuum; i.e., they do not feel the rotation. Mach's idea of the relativity of rotational motion does indeed work for them. However, rotation becomes observable by highenergy observers, who can see the quantum gravity effects.
 Publication:

Soviet Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics Letters
 Pub Date:
 July 2015
 DOI:
 10.1134/S0021364015140052
 arXiv:
 arXiv:1506.00882
 Bibcode:
 2015JETPL.102...73J
 Keywords:

 General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology;
 Condensed Matter  Other Condensed Matter;
 High Energy Physics  Phenomenology
 EPrint:
 16 pages version submitted to JETP Letters