Antiradiation Vaccine: Technology Development- Radiation Tolerance,Prophylaxis, Prevention And Treatment Of Clinical Presentation After Heavy Ion Irradiation.
Introduction: Research in the field of biological effects of heavy charged particles is necessary for both heavy-ion therapy (hadrontherapy) and protection from the exposure to galactic cosmic radiation in long-term manned space missions.[Durante M. 2004] In future crew of long-term manned missions could operate in exremely high hadronic radiation areas of space and will not survive without effective radiation protection. An Antiradiation Vaccine (AV) must be an important part of a countermeasures regimen for efficient radiation protection purposes of austronauts-cosmonauts-taukonauts: immune-prophylaxis and immune-therapy of acute radiation toxic syndromes developed after heavy ion irradiation. New technology developed (AV) for the purposes of radiological protection and improvement of radiation tolerance and it is quite important to create protective immune active status which prevent toxic reactions inside a human body irradiated by high energy hadrons.[Maliev V. et al. 2006, Popov D. et al.2008]. High energy hadrons produce a variety of secondary particles which play an important role in the energy deposition process, and characterise their radiation qualities [Sato T. et al. 2003] Antiradiation Vaccine with specific immune-prophylaxis by an anti-radiation vaccine should be an important part of medical management for long term space missions. Methods and experiments: 1. Antiradiation vaccine preparation standard, mixture of toxoid form of Radiation Toxins [SRD-group] which include Cerebrovascular RT Neurotoxin, Cardiovascular RT Neurotoxin, Gastrointestinal RT Neurotoxin, Hematopoietic RT Hematotoxin. Radiation Toxins of Radiation Determinant Group isolated from the central lymph of gamma-irradiated animals with Cerebrovascular, Cardiovascular, Gastro-intestinal, Hematopoietic forms of ARS. Devices for radiation are "Panorama", "Puma". 2. Heavy ion exposure was accomplished at Department of Research Institute of Nuclear Physics, Dubna, Russia. The heavy ions irradiation was generated in heavy ion (Fe56) accelerator - UTI. Heavy Ion linear transfer energy - 2000- 2600 KeV -mkm, 600 MeV -92U. Absorbed Dose - 3820 Rad. Experimental Design: Rabbits from all groups were irradiated by heavy ion accelerator. Group A: control-10 rabbits; Group B: placebo-5 rabbits; Group C: Radioprotectant Cystamine (50 mg-kg)-5 rabbits, 15 minutes before irradiation - 5 rabbits; Group D: Radioprotectant Gammafos (Amifostine 400mg -kg ) - 5 rabbits; Group E: Antiradiation Vaccine: subcutaneus administration or IM - 2 ml of active substance, 14 days before irradiation Results: Group A 100% mortality within two hours after heavy ion irradiation with clinical symptoms of Acute Cerebro- and Cardio-Vascular Radiation syndromes. Group B 100% mortality within 15 hours following irradiation. Group C 100% mortality within 14-15 hours after irradiation. Group D 100% mortality within 15-16 hours after irradiation. In groups A- D registered the development of acute radiation cerebrovascular and cardiovascular syndromes and also extensive burns. of skin produced rapid death. Group E -100% mortality in 280-290 hours (12 days) following heavy ion irradiation with animals exhibiting a combination or individual forms of Acute Cerebrovascular, Cardiovascular, and Gastrointestinal forms and focal skin burns. Discussion Antiradiation vaccine and immune-prophylaxis is an effective method of neutralization of Radiation Toxins. Vaccination before irradiation extended survival time after irradiation with heavy ions from two hours up to 300 hours. Clinical signs, clinical features, symptoms were somewhat attenuated. Degree of clinical forms of Acute Radiation Syndromes were diminished in their clinical manifestation and severity. Groups A-D demonstrated extremely severe level of Cerebrovascular and Cardiovascular forms of Acute Radiation Syndromes and lethality 100% was registered in short time after irradiation. Radiation induced burns in this groups (with Cutaneous sub-syndrome of ARS - Degree 4, that diffuse deep into soft tissues with extensive and total dysfunction and muscle involvement developed. Animals from group E - Radioprotectant Antiradiation Vaccine demonstrated later development of moderate-severe form forms of Cerebrovascular and Cardiovascular forms of ARS and survival time of irradiated animals was prolonged. Cutaneous sub-syndrome developed in Degree 3 or Degree 2-3. Our results have demonstrated potential radioprotection efficacy of immune-prophylaxis with Antiradiation Vaccine against high doses heavy ion irradiation.
40th COSPAR Scientific Assembly
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