This paper considers the optimization of the user and base-station (BS) association in a wireless downlink heterogeneous cellular network under the proportional fairness criterion. We first consider the case where each BS has a single antenna and transmits at fixed power, and propose a distributed price update strategy for a pricing-based user association scheme, in which the users are assigned to the BS based on the value of a utility function minus a price. The proposed price update algorithm is based on a coordinate descent method for solving the dual of the network utility maximization problem, and it has a rigorous performance guarantee. The main advantage of the proposed algorithm as compared to the existing subgradient method for price update is that the proposed algorithm is independent of parameter choices and can be implemented asynchronously. Further, this paper considers the joint user association and BS power control problem, and proposes an iterative dual coordinate descent and the power optimization algorithm that significantly outperforms existing approaches. Finally, this paper considers the joint user association and BS beamforming problem for the case where the BSs are equipped with multiple antennas and spatially multiplex multiple users. We incorporate dual coordinate descent with the weighted minimum mean-squared error (WMMSE) algorithm, and show that it achieves nearly the same performance as a computationally more complex benchmark algorithm (which applies the WMMSE algorithm on the entire network for BS association), while avoiding excessive BS handover.
- Pub Date:
- July 2014
- Computer Science - Networking and Internet Architecture;
- Computer Science - Information Theory
- IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Special Issue on 5G Communication Systems, June 2014