Intrinsic volumes, which generalize both Euler characteristic and Lebesgue volume, are important properties of $d$-dimensional sets. A random cubical complex is a union of unit cubes, each with vertices on a regular cubic lattice, constructed according to some probability model. We analyze and give exact polynomial formulae, dependent on a probability, for the expected value and variance of the intrinsic volumes of several models of random cubical complexes. We then prove a central limit theorem for these intrinsic volumes. For our primary model, we also prove an interleaving theorem for the zeros of the expected-value polynomials. The intrinsic volumes of cubical complexes are useful for understanding the shape of random $d$-dimensional sets and for characterizing noise in applications.