Thanks to progresses in material science and nanotechnologies, surfaces and thin films can now be structured at different scales. Photonics components take benefit of this possibility to fulfill still more and more complex functions. They are composed as well of organic as inorganic materials, dielectric, semiconductor, and metallic materials, or a mixture of them. Multiscale and chiral structures can be used to control both spectral, spatial distribution of light together with its polarization state. The optical mode density in the near field and in the far field can then be designed in particular by combining more or less resonant structures for the optical waves, associating diffraction, interferences and anisotropic structures like Fabry-Perot, waveguide, plasmons, photonic crystals ... Artificially nanostructured materials often called metamaterials exhibit new properties. Different phenomena recently considered, including optical topological insulator and structures for vortex waves transporting angular momentum of photons, will be also discussed and illustrated. With the development of nanometer size structures another step is overtaken allowing the control of the intimate interaction of optical waves with materials to tune their basic electronic properties and permittivity. Both optical and electronic properties are also strongly dependent on coupling effects needing a global approach.