Survey of Geomagnetic Observations Made in the Northern Sector of Russia and New Methods for Analysing Them
An overview of the geomagnetic observations made in the northern part of Russia is presented from a historical perspective. Several stations were deployed on the territory of the former Soviet Union during the International Geophysical Year, 1957-1958, with the active participation and guidance of the Interagency Geophysical Committee which is inherited by the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences (GC RAS). In the 1990s, the majority of these stations, especially those in the remoter regions, were closed. Nowadays, the geomagnetic network, including the observatories of the INTERMAGNET program, has been restored. Examples of high-latitude geomagnetic variations in the Russian longitudinal sector are shown, and maps and trends of the secular variation over the territory of Russia presented. Particular attention is paid to the automated processing of data and to the analysis methods used. To process the growing amount of high-resolution geomagnetic data, sophisticated mathematical methods based on the fuzzy logic approach and new discrete mathematical analysis algorithms have been developed. The formal methods and algorithms for recognizing both artificial and natural disturbances in the magnetograms are described.