Feedback, receptor clustering, and receptor restriction to single cells yield large Turing spaces for ligandreceptorbased Turing models
Abstract
Turing mechanisms can yield a large variety of patterns from noisy, homogenous initial conditions and have been proposed as patterning mechanism for many developmental processes. However, the molecular components that give rise to Turing patterns have remained elusive, and the small size of the parameter space that permits Turing patterns to emerge makes it difficult to explain how Turing patterns could evolve. We have recently shown that Turing patterns can be obtained with a single ligand if the ligandreceptor interaction is taken into account. Here we show that the general properties of ligandreceptor systems result in very large Turing spaces. Thus, the restriction of receptors to single cells, negative feedbacks, regulatory interactions among different ligandreceptor systems, and the clustering of receptors on the cell surface all greatly enlarge the Turing space. We further show that the feedbacks that occur in the FGF10SHH network that controls lung branching morphogenesis are sufficient to result in large Turing spaces. We conclude that the cellular restriction of receptors provides a mechanism to sufficiently increase the size of the Turing space to make the evolution of Turing patterns likely. Additional feedbacks may then have further enlarged the Turing space. Given their robustness and flexibility, we propose that receptorligandbased Turing mechanisms present a general mechanism for patterning in biology.
 Publication:

Physical Review E
 Pub Date:
 August 2014
 DOI:
 10.1103/PhysRevE.90.022716
 arXiv:
 arXiv:1407.7114
 Bibcode:
 2014PhRvE..90b2716K
 Keywords:

 87.10.Ca;
 05.65.+b;
 87.17.Pq;
 87.10.Kn;
 Analytical theories;
 Selforganized systems;
 Morphogenesis;
 Finite element calculations;
 Quantitative Biology  Molecular Networks;
 Quantitative Biology  Tissues and Organs;
 35K55;
 35K57;
 35B36;
 35Q92
 EPrint:
 doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.90.022716