The RIG-I-like receptors, retinoic acid inducible gene-1 (RIG-I), melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5, and laboratory of genetics and physiology-2, are cytoplasmic sensors for RNA viruses that mediate the antiviral innate immune responses. We demonstrate that really interesting new gene-finger domain- and K homology domain-containing MEX3C regulates RIG-I function. MEX3C colocalizes with RIG-I in the stress granules of virally infected cells, and its overexpression causes the lysine-63-linked ubiquitination of RIG-I and activates IFN-β promoter. Embryonic fibroblast cells, macrophages, and conventional dendritic cells derived from Mex3c-deficient mice showed defective production of type I IFN after infection with RNA viruses that are recognized by RIG-I. These results demonstrate that MEX3C is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that modifies RIG-I in stress granules and plays a critical role in eliciting antiviral immune responses.