Barycentric Corrections at 1 cm s^{1} for Precise Doppler Velocities
Abstract
The goal of this paper is to establish the requirements of a barycentric correction with an RMS of $\lesssim 1$ cm/s, which is an order of magnitude better than necessary for the Doppler detection of true Earth analogs ($\sim9$ cm/s). We describe the theory and implementation of accounting for the effects on precise Doppler measurements of motion of the telescope through space, primarily from rotational and orbital motion of the Earth, and the motion of the solar system with respect to target star (i.e. the "barycentric correction"). We describe the minimal algorithm necessary to accomplish this and how it differs from a naïve subtraction of velocities (i.e. a Galilean transformation). We demonstrate the validity of code we have developed from the California Planet Survey code via comparison with the pulsar timing package, TEMPO2. We estimate the magnitude of various terms and effects, including relativistic effects, and the errors associated with incomplete knowledge of telescope position, timing, and stellar position and motion. We note that chromatic aberration will create uncertainties in the time of observation, which will complicate efforts to detect true Earth analogs. Our code is available for public use and validation.
 Publication:

Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific
 Pub Date:
 September 2014
 DOI:
 10.1086/678541
 arXiv:
 arXiv:1409.4774
 Bibcode:
 2014PASP..126..838W
 Keywords:

 Astrophysics  Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics;
 Astrophysics  Earth and Planetary Astrophysics
 EPrint:
 Accepted for publication in PASP. 14 pages, 14 figures, 2 tables. Code available at http://astroutils.astronomy.ohiostate.edu/exofast/