Microstructures and petrology of melt inclusions in the anatectic sequence of Jubrique (Betic Cordillera, S Spain): Implications for crustal anatexis
We report a new occurrence of melt inclusions in polymetamorphic granulitic gneisses of the Jubrique unit, a complete though strongly thinned crustal section located above the Ronda peridotite slab (Betic Cordillera, S Spain). The gneissic sequence is composed of mylonitic gneisses at the bottom and in contact with the peridotites, and porphyroblastic gneisses on top. Mylonitic gneisses are strongly deformed rocks with abundant garnet and rare biotite. Except for the presence of melt inclusions, microstructures indicating the former presence of melt are rare or absent. Upwards in the sequence, garnet decreases whereas biotite increases in modal proportion. Melt inclusions are present from cores to rims of garnets throughout the entire sequence. Most of the former melt inclusions are now totally crystallized and correspond to nanogranites, whereas some of them are partially made of glass or, more rarely, are totally glassy. They show negative crystal shapes and range in size from ≈ 5 to 200 μm, with a mean size of ≈ 30-40 μm. Daughter phases in nanogranites and partially crystallized melt inclusions include quartz, feldspars, biotite and muscovite; accidental minerals include kyanite, graphite, zircon, monazite, rutile and ilmenite; glass has a granitic composition. Melt inclusions are mostly similar throughout all the gneissic sequence. Some fluid inclusions, of possible primary origin, are spatially associated with melt inclusions, indicating that at some point during the suprasolidus history of these rocks granitic melt and fluid coexisted. Thermodynamic modeling and conventional thermobarometry of mylonitic gneisses provide peak conditions of ≈ 850 °C and 12-14 kbar, corresponding to cores of large garnets with inclusions of kyanite and rutile. Post-peak conditions of ≈ 800-850 °C and 5-6 kbar are represented by rim regions of large garnets with inclusions of sillimanite and ilmenite, cordierite-quartz-biotite coronas replacing garnet rims, and the matrix with oriented sillimanite. Previous conventional petrologic studies on these strongly deformed rocks have proposed that anatexis started during decompression from peak to post-peak conditions and in the field of sillimanite. The study of melt inclusions shows, however, that melt was already present in the system at peak conditions, and that most garnet grew in the presence of melt.