Probing and modeling of carrier motion in organic devices by electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation
By probing dielectric polarization originating from dipoles and electrons in materials, we can study dynamical carrier behaviors in materials and also in devices. Maxwell displacement current (MDC) measurement allows us to directly probe orientational dipolar motion in monolayers, while electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurement allows dynamical electron and hole transport in solids to be probed directly. By probing nonlinear polarization induced in solids by coupling with incident electromagnetic waves of laser beam and dc electric field that originate from moving carriers, long-range carrier motion is visualized. Experiments using a time-resolved EFISHG technique reveal carrier transfer in organic devices such as organic field-effect transistors, organic light-emitting diodes, organic memory devices, and organic solar cells, and thus enable us to model the carrier transport mechanism. We anticipate that this novel technique using EFISHG can be a powerful tool for studying carrier behaviors in organic devices as well as in organic materials.