CdS nanowires were self-assembled in a thin film (∼200 nm) anodic aluminum oxide template on an indium tin oxide-coated glass substrate via dc electrodeposition. Raman spectral studies were done to probe the vibrational properties of scattering CdS phonons. Strong 1 longitudinal optical (LO), 2 LO, and 3 LO peaks were observed at 302 cm-1, 603 cm-1, and 906 cm-1 having an energy separation of 37 meV, which is in accordance with the CdS bulk values. The photoluminescence spectra showed improved intensity of emission on annealing of the CdS nanowires. Field-emission scanning microscopy confirms the growth of nanowires of diameters ranging from 10 nm to 25 nm for these templates. These diameters agreed with those extracted from the luminescence emission energies.