Event counts are response variables with non-negative integer values representing the number of times that an event occurs within a fixed domain such as a time interval, a geographical area or a cell of a contingency table. Analysis of counts by Gaussian regression models ignores the discreteness, asymmetry and heterocedasticity and is inefficient, providing unrealistic standard errors or possibily negative predictions of the expected number of events. The Poisson regression is the standard model for count data with underlying assumptions on the generating process which may be implausible in many applications. Statisticians have long recognized the limitation of imposing equidispersion under the Poisson regression model. A typical situation is when the conditional variance exceeds the conditional mean, in which case models allowing for overdispersion are routinely used. Less reported is the case of underdispersion with fewer modelling alternatives and assessments available in the literature. One of such alternatives, the Gamma-count model, is adopted here in the analysis of an agronomic experiment designed to investigate the effect of levels of defoliation on different phenological states upon the number of cotton bolls. Results show improvements over the Poisson model and the semiparametric quasi-Poisson model in capturing the observed variability in the data. Estimating rather than assuming the underlying variance process lead to important insights into the process.