Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is now a well-established technique for studying the brain. However, in many situations, such as when data are acquired in a resting state, it is difficult to know whether the data are truly stationary or if level shifts have occurred. To this end, change-point detection in sequences of functional data is examined where the functional observations are dependent and where the distributions of change-points from multiple subjects are required. Of particular interest is the case where the change-point is an epidemic change---a change occurs and then the observations return to baseline at a later time. The case where the covariance can be decomposed as a tensor product is considered with particular attention to the power analysis for detection. This is of interest in the application to fMRI, where the estimation of a full covariance structure for the three-dimensional image is not computationally feasible. Using the developed methods, a large study of resting state fMRI data is conducted to determine whether the subjects undertaking the resting scan have nonstationarities present in their time courses. It is found that a sizeable proportion of the subjects studied are not stationary. The change-point distribution for those subjects is empirically determined, as well as its theoretical properties examined.
- Pub Date:
- January 2013
- Statistics - Applications
- Published in at http://dx.doi.org/10.1214/12-AOAS565 the Annals of Applied Statistics (http://www.imstat.org/aoas/) by the Institute of Mathematical Statistics (http://www.imstat.org)