One-dimensional (1D) CdS nanowire/α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles nanostructure has been successfully synthesized via a typical two-step solvothermal deposition method. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis spectroscopy and Photoluminescence spectroscopy. The results revealed that the 1D CdS/α-Fe2O3 was consisted of CdS and α-Fe2O3. Each CdS nanowire has a uniform diameter of 20-30 nm and a length ranging from several to several tens of micrometers. α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles are anchored on CdS nanowires without any surface pretreatment and the particle size of α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles ranges from several to several tens of nanometers. The photocatalytic activity of 1D CdS/α-Fe2O3 and pristine CdS nanowires was evaluated by the photodegradation of Methylene Blue (MB) aqueous solution. The 1D CdS/α-Fe2O3 exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity, which is attributed to the extended photo-absorption range and improved separation of photogenerated carriers in CdS/α-Fe2O3.