Lepton number violation (LNV) mediated by short-range operators can manifest itself in both neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) and in processes with same-sign dilepton final states at the LHC. We derive limits from existing LHC data at s=8TeV and compare the discovery potential of the forthcoming s=14TeV phase of the LHC with the sensitivity of current and future 0νββ decay experiments, assuming the short-range part of the 0νββ decay amplitude dominates. We focus on the first of two possible topologies triggered by one fermion and two bosons in the intermediate state. In all cases, except for the pure leptoquark mechanism, the LHC will be more sensitive than 0νββ decay in the future. In addition, we propose to search for a charge asymmetry in the final state leptons and to use different invariant mass peaks as a possible tool to discriminate the various possible mechanisms for LNV signals at the LHC.