Externally controlled on-demand release of anti-HIV drug using magneto-electric nanoparticles as carriers
Although highly active anti-retroviral therapy has resulted in remarkable decline in the morbidity and mortality in AIDS patients, inadequately low delivery of anti-retroviral drugs across the blood-brain barrier results in virus persistence. The capability of high-efficacy-targeted drug delivery and on-demand release remains a formidable task. Here we report an in vitro study to demonstrate the on-demand release of azidothymidine 5′-triphosphate, an anti-human immunodeficiency virus drug, from 30 nm CoFe2O4@BaTiO3 magneto-electric nanoparticles by applying a low alternating current magnetic field. Magneto-electric nanoparticles as field-controlled drug carriers offer a unique capability of field-triggered release after crossing the blood-brain barrier. Owing to the intrinsic magnetoelectricity, these nanoparticles can couple external magnetic fields with the electric forces in drug-carrier bonds to enable remotely controlled delivery without exploiting heat. Functional and structural integrity of the drug after the release was confirmed in in vitro experiments with human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells and through atomic force microscopy, spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared and mass spectrometry studies.