X-ray scattering of periodic and graded multilayers: Comparison of experiments to simulations from surface microroughness characterization
To enhance the reflectivity of X-ray mirrors beyond the critical angle, multilayer coatings are required. Interface imperfections in the multilayer growth process are known to cause non-specular scattering and degrade the mirror optical performance; therefore, it is important to predict the amount of X-ray scattering from the rough topography of the outer surface of the coating, which can be directly measured, e.g., with an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). This kind of characterization, combined with X-ray reflectivity measurements to assess the deep multilayer stack structure, can be used to model the layer roughening during the growth process via a well-known roughness evolution model. In this work, X-ray scattering measurements are performed and compared with simulations obtained from the modeled interfacial Power Spectral Densities (PSDs) and the modeled Crossed Spectral Densities for all the couples of interfaces. We already used this approach in a previous work for periodic multilayers; we now show how this method can be extended to graded multilayers. The upgraded code is validated for both periodic and graded multilayers, with a good accord between experimental data and model findings. Doing this, different kinds of defects observed in AFM scans are included in the PSD analysis. The subsequent data-model comparison enables us to recognize them as surface contamination or interfacial defects that contribute to the X-ray scattering of the multilayer.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A
- Pub Date:
- May 2013
- Physics - Optics;
- Astrophysics - Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics;
- 4th IWXM conference, Barcelona, Jul 2012. Published in NIM-A on May 11, 2013. AAM posted to arXiv as per Elsevier's Article posting policy. Published paper available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2012.10.104