LRO observations of morphology and surface roughness of volcanic cones and lobate lava flows in the Marius Hills
The volcanic domes, cones, sinuous rilles, and pyroclastic deposits of the Marius Hills region of the Moon (~13.4°N, 304.6°E) represent a significant episode of magmatic activity at or near the lunar surface that is still poorly understood. Comparisons between LROC NAC block populations, Mini-RF data, and Diviner-derived rock abundances confirm that blocky lava flows comprise the domes of the Marius Hills. 8 µm features measured by Diviner indicate that the domes are not rich in silica and are not significantly different than surrounding mare materials. LROC observations indicate that some of the dome-building lava flows originated directly from volcanic cones. Many of the cones are C-shaped, while others are irregularly shaped, and local topography and lava eruptions affect cone shape. In general, the cones are morphologically similar to terrestrial cinder and lava cones and are composed of varying amounts of cinder, spatter, and lava. Many of the cones are found in local groupings or alignments. The wide range of volcanic features, from broad low domes to steep cones, represents a range of variable eruption conditions. Complex morphologies and variable layering show that eruption conditions were variable over the plateau.