Semiconductor diode detectors coated with neutron reactive materials have been investigated as neutron detectors for many decades, and are fashioned mostly as planar diodes coated with boron-10 (10B), lithium-6 fluoride (6LiF) or gadolinium (Gd). Although effective, these detectors are limited in efficiency (the case for boron and LiF coatings) or in the ability to distinguish background radiations from neutron-induced interactions (the case for Gd coatings). Over the past decade, a renewed effort has been made to improve diode designs to achieve up to a 10-fold increase in neutron detection efficiency over the simple planar diode designs. These new semiconductor neutron detectors are fashioned with a matrix of microstructured patterns etched deeply into the substrate and, subsequently, backfilled with neutron reactive materials. Intrinsic thermal-neutron detection efficiencies exceeding 40% have been achieved with devices no thicker than 1 mm while operating on less than 5 V.