This study employs data collected during the High Lava Plains (HLP) controlled-source seismic experiment conducted in September 2008. In this experiment, 2612 short-period seismic recorders and 120 3-component recorders were deployed across eastern Oregon and adjacent parts of Nevada and Idaho to record 15 seismic sources. Seismic and gravity data were integrated to create 2-D crustal scale P-wave velocity and density models for the ∼400 km long NW-SE and N-S profiles to provide a better understanding of the crustal and upper mantle structure and ultimately the magmatic and tectonic evolution of the region. These models are the first high-resolution images beneath the path of migratory, bi-modal volcanism that dotted the High Lava Plains beginning at 16 Ma. Our models show that the crustal structure across the HLP region is similar to that of the northern Basin and Range which has experienced extension since ∼35 Ma but with moderate magmatic modification of the crust. A thick layer (5-7 km) of sediments and volcanics extends over most of the area and is thickest in the Harney Basin area. We interpret denser/faster material in the lower to middle crust under the southern Harney Basin area to be mafic intraplating. We have also identified a region of denser/faster material in the upper crust in the vicinity of Oregon-Idaho border. The crust thickens from 34 to 37 km, and the lower crust increases in density (2.8-2.85 g/cm3), from west to east across eastern Oregon in close proximity to the interpreted position of the 0.706 Sr isotope line, suggesting a decrease in extension. In the lowermost crust below the southeastern HLP, there is relatively high velocity (7.2-7.4 km/s) and density (2.95 g/cm3) that suggests the presence of underplating. The HLP region has undergone moderate extension, and the average crustal velocity is somewhat higher than in the adjacent Basin and Range, suggesting some magmatic modification in the lower crust, but not as much as might be expected given the voluminous surface volcanism.