Extended envelopes around Galactic Cepheids. IV. T Monocerotis and X Sagittarii from mid-infrared interferometry with VLTI/MIDI
Aims: We study the close environment of nearby Cepheids using high spatial resolution observations in the mid-infrared with the VLTI/MIDI instrument, a two-beam interferometric recombiner.
Methods: We obtained spectra and visibilities for the classical Cepheids X Sgr and T Mon. We fitted the MIDI measurements, supplemented by B,V,J,H,K literature photometry, with the numerical transfer code DUSTY to determine the dust shell parameters. We used a typical dust composition for circumstellar environments.
Results: We detect an extended dusty environment in the spectra and visibilities for both stars, although T Mon might suffer from thermal background contamination. We attribute this to the presence of a circumstellar envelope (CSE) surrounding the Cepheids. This is optically thin for X Sgr (τ0.55 μm = 0.008), while it appears to be thicker for T Mon (τ0.55 μm = 0.15). They are located at about 15-20 stellar radii. Following our previous work, we derived a likely period-excess relation in the VISIR PAH1 filter, f8.6 μm[%]= 0.81(±0.04)P[day]. We argue that the impact of CSEs on the mid-IR period-luminosity (P - L) relation cannot be negligible because they can bias the Cepheid brightness by up to about 30%. For the K-band P - L relation, the CSE contribution seems to be lower (<5%), but the sample needs to be enlarged to firmly conclude that the impact of the CSEs is negligible in this band.
Astronomy and Astrophysics
- Pub Date:
- October 2013
- techniques: high angular resolution;
- techniques: interferometric;
- circumstellar matter;
- stars: variables: Cepheids;
- Astrophysics - Solar and Stellar Astrophysics
- Accepted for publication in Astronomy and Astrophysics