We report here our results on the spectroscopic and elemental analysis of femtosecond (fs) laser-modified regions in polymers of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) in the context of defect formation and emission in the visible region. Different physical and chemical models are used to explain the changes in modified regions. We found that the emission intensity, recorded from the fs-modified regions of polymers, decreased over time to a constant value. We also demonstrate that these materials are suitable for the preparation of the microstructures en route for light guiding applications. The fs laser-irradiated regions exhibited paramagnetic behavior as was confirmed from electron spin resonance studies through the formation of peroxide-type free radicals. Raman mapping was performed in the modified regions which consisted of defects and found that the modulations in intensity are predominant in the central portion of the structure compared to edges. Elemental analysis has been performed in the modified regions using field emission scanning electron microscope instrument and energy-dispersive X-ray absorption spectroscopy to estimate the percentage contents of individual elements which resulted in defect formation such as paramagnetic and optical centers.