Two-dimensional Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki state on the honeycomb lattice is a universal resource for quantum computation
Universal quantum computation can be achieved by simply performing single-qubit measurements on a highly entangled resource state. Resource states can arise from ground states of carefully designed two-body interacting Hamiltonians. This opens up an appealing possibility of creating them by cooling. The family of Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki (AKLT) states are the ground states of particularly simple Hamiltonians with high symmetry, and their potential use in quantum computation gives rise to a new research direction. Expanding on our prior work [T.-C. Wei, I. Affleck, and R. Raussendorf, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.106.070501 106, 070501 (2011)], we give a detailed analysis to explain why the spin-3/2 AKLT state on a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice is a universal resource for measurement-based quantum computation. Along the way, we also provide an alternative proof that the 1D spin-1 AKLT state can be used to simulate arbitrary one-qubit unitary gates. Moreover, we connect the quantum computational universality of 2D random graph states to their percolation property and show that these states whose graphs are in the supercritical (i.e., percolated) phase are also universal resources for measurement-based quantum computation.