The H.E.S.S. array of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes continues to observe the southern sky with unprecedented sensitivity at very-high-energy (VHE, E>100 GeV)γ-rays. This leads to a steady increase in the number of detected VHE γ-ray sources as well as the discovery of sources with fluxes even below 1% of the flux of the Crab nebula. Up to now, well more than 100 VHE γ-ray sources are known, which allow to study not only individual objects, but also whole populations of source classes, such as pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) and shell-type supernova remnants (SNRs). This paper focuses on Galactic sources, highlighting some aspects of the recent progress in this field.After discussing the general status and the future of the H.E.S.S. Galactic Plane survey, four individual sources related to recent discoveries are presented in detail in this contribution: (a) the PWNe HESS J1825-137 and HESS J1303-631 which show intriguing energy-dependent morphologies, (b) the formerly unidentified source HESS J1626-490 which is most likely associated to a molecular cloud illuminated with hadronic cosmic rays by a nearby SNR, and (c) Terzan 5 which is the first Galactic globular cluster that features a VHE γ-ray source in direct vicinity.