Large-scale arrays of Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) are attractive candidates for use in imaging instruments for next generation submillimeter-wave telescopes such as CCAT. We have designed and fabricated tightly packed ~250-pixel MKID arrays using lumped-element resonators etched from a thin layer of superconducting TiNx deposited on a silicon substrate. The high pixel packing density in our initial design resulted in large microwave crosstalk due to electromagnetic coupling between the resonators. Our second design eliminates this problem by adding a grounding shield and using a double-wound geometry for the meander inductor to allow conductors with opposite polarity to be in close proximity. In addition, the resonator frequencies are distributed in a checkerboard pattern across the array. We present details for the two resonator and array designs and describe a circuit model for the full array that predicts the distribution of resonator frequencies and the crosstalk level. We also show results from a new experimental technique that conveniently measures crosstalk without the need for an optical setup. Our results reveal an improvement in crosstalk from 57% in the initial design down to \leq 2% in the second design. The general procedure and design guidelines in this work are applicable to future large arrays employing microwave resonators.
IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory Techniques
- Pub Date:
- May 2012
- Physics - Instrumentation and Detectors;
- Astrophysics - Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics;
- Condensed Matter - Superconductivity
- Paper published in IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques