Transit Timing Observations from Kepler. IV. Confirmation of Four Multipleplanet Systems by Simple Physical Models
Abstract
Eighty planetary systems of two or more planets are known to orbit stars other than the Sun. For most, the data can be sufficiently explained by noninteracting Keplerian orbits, so the dynamical interactions of these systems have not been observed. Here we present four sets of light curves from the Kepler spacecraft, each which of shows multiple planets transiting the same star. Departure of the timing of these transits from strict periodicity indicates that the planets are perturbing each other: the observed timing variations match the forcing frequency of the other planet. This confirms that these objects are in the same system. Next we limit their masses to the planetary regime by requiring the system remain stable for astronomical timescales. Finally, we report dynamical fits to the transit times, yielding possible values for the planets' masses and eccentricities. As the timespan of timing data increases, dynamical fits may allow detailed constraints on the systems' architectures, even in cases for which highprecision Doppler followup is impractical.
 Publication:

The Astrophysical Journal
 Pub Date:
 May 2012
 DOI:
 10.1088/0004637X/750/2/114
 arXiv:
 arXiv:1201.5415
 Bibcode:
 2012ApJ...750..114F
 Keywords:

 methods: statistical;
 planetary systems;
 planets and satellites: detection;
 planets and satellites: dynamical evolution and stability;
 stars: individual: KID 10358759/KOI738/Kepler29 KID 3832474/KOI806/Kepler30 KID 9347899/KOI935/Kepler31 KID 9787239/KOI952/Kepler32;
 Astrophysics  Earth and Planetary Astrophysics
 EPrint:
 In the proofs process, corrections were made to tables  most crucially, the timing data for Kepler30b and the depths and radii of planets in Kepler31 and 32