Relativistic Collapse and Explosion of Rotating Supermassive Stars with Thermonuclear Effects
Abstract
We present results of general relativistic simulations of collapsing supermassive stars with and without rotation using the twodimensional general relativistic numerical code Nada, which solves the Einstein equations written in the BSSN formalism and the general relativistic hydrodynamic equations with highresolution shockcapturing schemes. These numerical simulations use an equation of state that includes the effects of gas pressure and, in a tabulated form, those associated with radiation and the electronpositron pairs. We also take into account the effect of thermonuclear energy released by hydrogen and helium burning. We find that objects with a mass of ≈5 × 10^{5} M _{⊙} and an initial metallicity greater than Z _{CNO} ≈ 0.007 do explode if nonrotating, while the threshold metallicity for an explosion is reduced to Z _{CNO} ≈ 0.001 for objects uniformly rotating. The critical initial metallicity for a thermonuclear explosion increases for stars with a mass ≈10^{6} M _{⊙}. For those stars that do not explode, we follow the evolution beyond the phase of black hole (BH) formation. We compute the neutrino energy loss rates due to several processes that may be relevant during the gravitational collapse of these objects. The peak luminosities of neutrinos and antineutrinos of all flavors for models collapsing to a BH are L _{ν} ~ 10^{55} erg s^{1}. The total radiated energy in neutrinos varies between E _{ν} ~ 10^{56} erg for models collapsing to a BH and E _{ν} ~ 10^{45}10^{46} erg for models exploding.
 Publication:

The Astrophysical Journal
 Pub Date:
 April 2012
 DOI:
 10.1088/0004637X/749/1/37
 arXiv:
 arXiv:1108.3090
 Bibcode:
 2012ApJ...749...37M
 Keywords:

 black hole physics;
 equation of state;
 gravitational waves;
 neutrinos;
 stars: evolution;
 Astrophysics  Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics;
 General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology
 EPrint:
 15 pages, 11 figures, accepted by ApJ