Context. Ultracompact (UC) Hii regions constitute one of the earliest phases in the formation of a massive star and are characterized by extreme physical conditions (G0 > 105 Habing field and n > 106 cm-3). The UC Hii Mon R2 is the closest example and an excellent target to study the chemistry in these complex regions.
Aims: Our goal is to investigate the chemistry of the molecular gas around UC Hii Mon R2 and the variations caused by the different local physical conditions.
Methods: We carried out 3 mm and 1 mm spectral surveys using the IRAM 30-m telescope towards three positions that represent different physical environments in Mon R2: (i) the ionization front (IF) at (0″, 0″), and two peaks in the molecular cloud; (ii) molecular Peak 1 (hereafter MP1) at the offset (+15″, -15″); and (iii) molecular Peak 2 (hereafter MP2) at the farther offset (0″, 40″). In addition, we carried out extensive modeling to explain the chemical differences between the three observed regions.
Results: We detected more than 30 different species (including isotopologues and deuterated compounds). In particular, we detected SO+ and C4H confirming that ultraviolet (UV) radiation plays an important role in the molecular chemistry of this region. In agreement with this interpretation, we detected the typical photo-dissociation region (PDR) molecules CN, HCN, HCO, C2H, and c-C3H2. There are chemical differences between the observed positions. While the IF and the MP1 have a chemistry similar to that found in high UV field and dense PDRs such as the Orion Bar, the MP2 is similar to lower UV/density PDRs such as the Horsehead nebula. Our chemical modeling supports this interpretation. In addition to the PDR-like species, we detected complex molecules such as CH3CN, H2CO, HC3N, CH3OH, and CH3C2H that are not usually found in PDRs. The sulfur compounds CS, HCS+, C2S, H2CS, SO, and SO2 and the deuterated species DCN and C2D were also identified. The origin of these complex species requires further study. The observed deuteration fractionations, [DCN]/[HCN] ~ 0.03 and [C2D]/[C2H] ~ 0.05, are among the highest in warm regions.
Conclusions: Our results show that the high UV/dense PDRs have a different chemistry from the low UV case. Some abundance ratios such as [CO+]/[HCO+] or [HCO]/[HCO+] are good diagnostics for differentiating between them. In Mon R2, we have the two classes of PDRs, a high UV PDR towards the IF and the adjacent molecular bar, and a low-UV PDR, which extends towards the north-west following the border of the cloud.
Astronomy and Astrophysics
- Pub Date:
- July 2012
- stars: formation;
- ISM: molecules;
- line: identification;
- ISM: individual objects: Mon R2;
- Astrophysics - Solar and Stellar Astrophysics;
- Astrophysics - Astrophysics of Galaxies
- 31 pages