When Newton meets Descartes: A Simple and Fast Algorithm to Isolate the Real Roots of a Polynomial
Abstract
We introduce a new algorithm denoted DSC2 to isolate the real roots of a univariate squarefree polynomial f with integer coefficients. The algorithm iteratively subdivides an initial interval which is known to contain all real roots of f. The main novelty of our approach is that we combine Descartes' Rule of Signs and Newton iteration. More precisely, instead of using a fixed subdivision strategy such as bisection in each iteration, a Newton step based on the number of sign variations for an actual interval is considered, and, only if the Newton step fails, we fall back to bisection. Following this approach, our analysis shows that, for most iterations, we can achieve quadratic convergence towards the real roots. In terms of complexity, our method induces a recursion tree of almost optimal size O(nlog(n tau)), where n denotes the degree of the polynomial and tau the bitsize of its coefficients. The latter bound constitutes an improvement by a factor of tau upon all existing subdivision methods for the task of isolating the real roots. In addition, we provide a bit complexity analysis showing that DSC2 needs only \tilde{O}(n^3tau) bit operations to isolate all real roots of f. This matches the best bound known for this fundamental problem. However, in comparison to the much more involved algorithms by Pan and Schönhage (for the task of isolating all complex roots) which achieve the same bit complexity, DSC2 focuses on real root isolation, is very easy to access and easy to implement.
 Publication:

arXiv eprints
 Pub Date:
 September 2011
 DOI:
 10.48550/arXiv.1109.6279
 arXiv:
 arXiv:1109.6279
 Bibcode:
 2011arXiv1109.6279S
 Keywords:

 Computer Science  Symbolic Computation;
 Computer Science  Numerical Analysis