Modern tissue engineering strategies combine living cells and scaffold materials to develop biological substitutes that can restore tissue functions. Both natural and synthetic materials have been fabricated for transplantation of stem cells and their specific differentiation into muscles, bones and cartilages. One of the key objectives for bone regeneration therapy to be successful is to direct stem cells' proliferation and to accelerate their differentiation in a controlled manner through the use of growth factors and osteogenic inducers. Here we show that graphene provides a promising biocompatible scaffold that does not hamper the proliferation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and accelerates their specific differentiation into bone cells. The differentiation rate is comparable to the one achieved with common growth factors, demonstrating graphene's potential for stem cell research.