Nonequilibrium thermodynamics.III. Thermodynamic Principles, Entropy Continuity during Component Confinement, Energy Gap and the Residual Entropy
Abstract
To investigate the consequences of component confinement such as at a glass transition and the wellknown energy or enthalpy gap (between the glass and the perfect crystal at absolute zero, see text), we follow our previous approach [Phys. Rev. E 81, 051130 (2010)] of using the second law applied to an isolated system {\Sigma}_0 consisting of the homogeneous system {\Sigma} and the medium {\Sigma}. We establish on general grounds the continuity of the Gibbs free energy G(t) of {\Sigma} as a function of time at fixed temperature and pressure of the medium. It immediately follows from this and the observed continuity of the enthalpy during component confinement that the entropy S of the open system {\Sigma} must remain continuous during a component confinement such as at a glass transition. We use these continuity properties and the recently developed nonequilibrium thermodynamics to formulate thermodynamic principles of additivity, reproducibility, continuity and stability that must also apply to nonequilibrium systems in internal equilibrium. We find that the irreversibility during a glass transition only justifies the residual entropy S_{R} to be at least as much as that determined by disregarding the irreversibility, a common practice in the field. This justifies a nonzero residual entropy S_{R} in glasses, which is also in accordance with the energy or enthalpy gap at absolute zero. We develop a statistical formulation of the entropy of a nonequilibrium system, which results in the continuity of entropy during component confinement in accordance with the second law and sheds light on the mystery behind the residual entropy, which is consistent with the recent conclusion [Symmetry 2, 1201 (2010)] drawn by us.
 Publication:

arXiv eprints
 Pub Date:
 January 2011
 arXiv:
 arXiv:1101.0429
 Bibcode:
 2011arXiv1101.0429G
 Keywords:

 Condensed Matter  Statistical Mechanics;
 80;
 82
 EPrint:
 52 pages, 4 figures, citation corrected