Particle chemical properties in the vertical column based on aircraft observations in the vicinity of Cape Verde Islands
During the second Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM-2) field campaign, particles with geometric diameters (d) between ∼0.1 and 25 μm were collected on board of the Deutsches Zentrum f¨ur Luft- und Raumfahrt (German Aerospace Center, DLR) Falcon aircraft. Size, chemical composition and mixing state of aerosols sampled (spatially and vertically resolved) along theWest African coastline and in the Cape Verde Islands region were determined by electron microscopy. A pronounced layer structure of biomass-burning aerosol and desert dust was present for all days during the sampling period from 23 January to 6 February. The aerosol composition of the small particles (d < 0.5 μm) was highly variable and in cases of biomass burning strongly dominated by soot with up to 90% relative number abundance. Internal mixtures of soot particles with mineral dust were not detected. Soot was only observed to mix with secondary sulphate. The coarse particles (d > 0.5 μm) were dominated by silicates. In the Cape Verde Islands region mineral dust is well mixed. The determination of source regions by elemental or mineralogical composition was generally not possible, except for air masses which were transported over the Gulf of Guinea. The real part of the refractive index showed little variation. In contrast, the imaginary part strongly depended on the abundance of soot (biomass-burning aerosol) and haematite (mineral dust).