Ribosomes translate genetic information encoded by messenger RNA into proteins. Many aspects of translation and its regulation are specific to eukaryotes, whose ribosomes are much larger and intricate than their bacterial counterparts. We report the crystal structure of the 80S ribosome from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae—including nearly all ribosomal RNA bases and protein side chains as well as an additional protein, Stm1—at a resolution of 3.0 angstroms. This atomic model reveals the architecture of eukaryote-specific elements and their interaction with the universally conserved core, and describes all eukaryote-specific bridges between the two ribosomal subunits. It forms the structural framework for the design and analysis of experiments that explore the eukaryotic translation apparatus and the evolutionary forces that shaped it.