Optical and electrical properties of SnS semiconductor crystals grown by physical vapor deposition technique
Tin sulfide (SnS) is a material of interest for use as an absorber in low cost solar cells. Single crystals of SnS were grown by the physical vapor deposition technique. The grown crystals were characterized to evaluate the composition, structure, morphology, electrical and optical properties using appropriate techniques. The composition analysis indicated that the crystals were nearly stoichiometric with Sn-to-S atomic percent ratio of 1.02. Study of their morphology revealed the layered type growth mechanism with low surface roughness. The grown crystals had orthorhombic structure with (0 4 0) orientation. They exhibited an indirect optical band gap of 1.06 eV and direct band gap of 1.21 eV with high absorption coefficient (up to 10 3 cm -1) above the fundamental absorption edge. The grown crystals were of p-type with an electrical resistivity of 120 Ω cm and carrier concentration 1.52×10 15 cm -3. Analysis of optical absorption and diffuse reflectance spectra showed the presence of a wide absorption band in the wavelength range 300-1200 nm, which closely matches with a significant part of solar radiation spectrum. The obtained results were discussed to assess the suitability of the SnS crystal for the fabrication of optoelectronic devices.