Spatial gradient of dynamic nuclear spin polarization induced by breakdown of the quantum Hall effect
We studied spatial distribution of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) in a Hall-bar device in a breakdown regime of the quantum Hall effect (QHE). We detected nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals from the polarized nuclear spins by measuring the Hall voltage Vxy using three pairs of voltage probes attached to the conducting channel of the Hall bar. We find that the amplitude of the NMR signal depends on the position of the Hall voltage probes and that the largest NMR signal is obtained from the pair of probes farthest from the electron-injecting electrode. Combined with results on pump-and-probe measurements, we conclude that the DNP induced by QHE breakdown develops along the electron-drift direction.