Skyrmions are topologically protected field configurations with particle-like properties that play an important role in various fields of science. Recently, skyrmions have been observed to be stabilized by an external magnetic field in bulk magnets. Here, we describe a two-dimensional square lattice of skyrmions on the atomic length scale as the magnetic ground state of a hexagonal Fe film of one-atomic-layer thickness on the Ir(111) surface. Using spin-polarized scanning tunnelling microscopy we can directly image this non-collinear spin texture in real space on the atomic scale and demonstrate that it is incommensurate to the underlying atomic lattice. With the aid of first-principles calculations, we develop a spin model on a discrete lattice that identifies the interplay of Heisenberg exchange, the four-spin and the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction as the microscopic origin of this magnetic state.