The fall of the Grimsby meteorite—I: Fireball dynamics and orbit from radar, video, and infrasound records
The Grimsby meteorite (H4-06) fell on September 25, 2009. As of mid-2010, 13 fragments totaling 215 g have been recovered. Records of the accompanying fireball from the Southern Ontario Meteor Network, including six all-sky video cameras, a large format CCD, infrasound and radar records, have been used to characterize the trajectory, speed, orbit, and initial mass of the meteoroid. From the four highest quality all-sky video records, the initial entry velocity was 20.91 ± 0.19 km s-1 while the derived radiant has a local azimuth of 309.40° ± 0.19° and entry angle of 55.20° ± 0.13°. Three major fragmentation episodes are identified at 39, 33, and 30 km height, with corresponding uncertainties of approximately 2 km. Evidence for early fragmentation at heights of approximately 70 km is found in radar data; dynamic pressure of this earliest fragmentation is near 0.1 MPa while the main flare at 39 km occurred under ram pressures of 1.5 MPa. The fireball was luminous to at least 19.7 km altitude and the dynamic mass estimate of the largest remaining fragment at this height is approximately several kilograms. The initial mass is constrained to be <100 kg from infrasound data and ablation modeling, with a most probable mass of 20-050 kg. The preatmospheric orbit is typical of an Apollo asteroid with a likely immediate origin in either the 3:1 or ν6 resonances.