David Shoenberg and the beauty of quantum oscillations
Abstract
The quantum oscillation effect was discovered in Leiden in 1930, by W. J. de Haas and P. M. van Alphen when measuring magnetization, and by L. W. Shubnikov and de Haas when measuring magnetoresistance. Studying single crystals of bismuth, they observed oscillatory variations in the magnetization and magnetoresistance with magnetic field. Shoenberg, whose first research in Cambridge had been on bismuth, found that much stronger oscillations are observed when a bismuth sample is cooled to liquid helium temperature rather than liquid hydrogen, which had been used by de Haas. In 1938 Shoenberg went from Cambridge to Moscow to study these oscillations at Kapitza's Institute where liquid helium was available at that time. In 1947, J. Marcus observed similar oscillations in zinc and that persuaded Schoenberg to return to this research. After that, the dHvA effect became one of his main research topics. In particular, he developed techniques for quantitative measurement of this effect in many metals. A theoretical explanation of quantum oscillations was given by L. Onsager in 1952, and an analytical quantitative theory by I. M. Lifshitz and A. M. Kosevich in 1955. These theoretical advances seemed to provide a comprehensive description of the effect. Since then, quantum oscillations have been widely used as a tool for measuring Fermi surface extremal crosssections and allangle electron scattering times. In his pioneering experiments of the 1960's, Shoenberg revealed the richness and deep essence of the quantum oscillation effect and showed how the beauty of the effect is disclosed under nonlinear conditions imposed by interactions in the system under study. It was quite surprising that "magnetic interaction" conditions could cause the apparently weak quantum oscillation effect to have such strong consequences as breaking the sample into magnetic (now called "Shoenberg") domains and forming an inhomogeneous magnetic state. With his contributions to the field of quantum oscillations and superconductivity, Shoenberg is undoubtedly one of the 20th century's foremost scientists. We describe experiments to determine the quantitative parameters of electronelectron interactions in line with Shoenberg's idea that quasiparticle interaction parameters can be found by analyzing quantum oscillations as modified by interactions.
 Publication:

Low Temperature Physics
 Pub Date:
 January 2011
 DOI:
 10.1063/1.3549164
 Bibcode:
 2011LTP....37....8P
 Keywords:

 bismuth;
 electronelectron interactions;
 electronelectron scattering;
 Fermi surface;
 magnetic domains;
 magnetic materials;
 quasiparticles;
 Shubnikovde Haas effect;
 75.60.Ej;
 75.60.Ch;
 Magnetization curves hysteresis Barkhausen and related effects;
 Domain walls and domain structure