Different lines of evidence point to hydrological cycling in the martian past. The extent, duration, and magnitude of this cycling remains unclear, as well as the magnitude of aqueous processes on the surface. Here, we provide geomorphic and mineralogic evidence of a large inter-crater sedimentary basin located in the Terra Sirenum region, which was once covered by a body of liquid water with an areal extent of at least 30,000 km 2 and a depth of approximately 200 m. The topographic basin, which is modified by a number of large impact craters, is partly controlled by ancient impact and tectonic structures. As a result of evaporation of the large body of water, salt flats formed in the lowest topographic reaches of the basin. Hydrated phyllosilicates occur in close proximity to the salt flats and in the ejecta and rim materials of small impact craters with stratigraphic relations that suggest that they underlie the evaporite deposits. Crater statistics place the maximum age of aqueous activity during the Late Noachian epoch. The relatively pristine mineral deposits in the basin have a high potential to yield information of the geochemistry and water activity during the ancient Noachian Period when conditions were seemingly more conducive to life.