Significant historic cosmic evolution for the formation rate of stellar black holes is inferred from current theoretical models of the evolution of massive stars, the multiple observations of compact stellar remnants in the near and distant universe, and the cosmic chemical evolution. The mean mass of stellar black holes, the fraction of black holes/neutron stars, and the fraction of black hole high mass X-ray binaries (BH-HMXBs)/solitary black holes increase with redshift. The energetic feedback from large populations of BH-HMXBs form in the first generations of star burst galaxies has been overlooked in most cosmological models of the reionization epoch of the universe. The powerful radiation, jets, and winds from BH-HMXBs heat the intergalactic medium over large volumes of space and keep it ionized until AGN take over. It is concluded that stellar black holes constrained the properties of the faintest galaxies at high redshifts. I present here the theoretical and observational grounds for the historic cosmic evolution of stellar black holes. Detailed calculations on their cosmic impact are presented elsewhere (Mirabel, Dijkstra, Laurent, Loeb, & Pritchard 2011).
Jets at All Scales
- Pub Date:
- February 2011
- Black holes;
- Astrophysics - Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics
- 9 pages, 1 color figure. Invited talk at the IAU Symp. 275, Jets at all scales. Held in Buenos Aires on 13-17 September 2010. To be published by Cambridge University Press. Eds. G. Romero, R. Sunyaev and T. Belloni